CDRA for Majayjay, Laguna
The UP Resilience Institute (UPRI) and the UP NOAH Center assisted the Municipality of Majayjay, Laguna in developing their Climate and Disaster Risk Assessment (CDRA) and formulating their People’s Survival Fund (PSF) proposal. With the goal of minimizing the adverse impacts of climate change and helping the municipality plan better, the UPRI and the UP NOAH Center conducted CDRA with the use of science-based probabilistic hazard maps. The results of the CDRA were highly valuable input to the formulation of the PSF proposal of the municipality that aims to reduce exposure, lessen sensitivities, and increase adaptive capacities of the locality. The outputs of this partnership will greatly assist the LGUs identify areas that require priority response, formulate well-informed decisions, anticipate future scenarios brought about by climate change, and transform the Municipality of Majayjay from a climate-vulnerable to a climate-smart municipality.
The Municipality of Majayjay in the Province of Laguna lies about 120 kilometers southeast ofManila. It is situated at the foot of Mount Banahaw and has an average elevation of 1,000 meters above sea level (masl). The town is bounded by the Municipality of Magdalena on the north, Liliw on the west, Lucban, Quezon on the east, and Mount Banahaw on the south. Its total land area is measured at 7,342.9 hectares, which is distributed among 40 barangays Currently, 4,061.45 hectares is dedicated for agricultural and agro-industrial uses. This is approximately fifty-five percent (55%) of Majayjay’s total land area. Out of this, 975.97 hectares (13.29%) is planted with rice, while 2,086.27 hectares (28.41%) is for coconut, which is considered as the major crop of Majayjay. (Municipality of Majayjay, 2018). Majayjay envisions to offer a safe and ecologically balanced environment to its empowered citizens and become a premiere center for organic agriculture and eco-cultural tourism in Laguna, which is progressive, investor friendly, globally competitive and responsibly administered by a transparent government (Municipality of Majayjay, 2018).
Consistent with its vision, the municipality acknowledges the need to address the adverse impacts of climate change and disaster risks and manage other relevant hazards to achieve its goals and attain development that is sustainable and resilient. To help in addressing the impacts of climate change and disaster risk, the municipality intends to tap the People’s Survival Fund (PSF), a special fund in the National Treasury for the financing of adaptation programs and projects based on the National Strategic Framework. The PSF can be used for adaptation activities, improvement of the monitoring of vector-borne diseases triggered by climate change, forecasting and early warning systems, strengthening or establishment of regional centers and information networks to support climate change, and other adaptation programs (RA 10174, 2012). Accessing the PSF requires the proponents to have data on climate-related stimuli, hazards, and impacts; climate baseline information and observations; projects and corresponding risk and vulnerability of the locality; and exposed population, sectors, and areas. In line with this, UPRI in collaboration with the Municipality of Majayjay, conducted a climate and disaster risk assessment (CDRA) workshop attended by LGU representatives from different offices. The CDRA is composed of a climate change vulnerability assessment (CCVA) and a disaster risk assessment (DRA).
During the workshop, Majayjay reviewed its seasonal climate projections, and observed that its temperatures and volume of rainfall will increase in the coming decades. Based on this, the productivity of its agricultural sector will be impacted as its water supply and soil conditions will change, thereby affecting the overall land suitability. These climate stimuli (increase in temperature and rainfall) were further analyzed by the various municipal stakeholders using an impact chain diagram (ICD), and identified the potential effects that these could cause. The ICD provides an overview of both direct and indirect potential impacts of climate hazards and its implications to the physical, economic, social, and environmental aspects of a community. It exemplifies the cause-effect relations that characterizes the potential impacts of climate change and hazards on different sectors of concern. Results of the ICD reflect that the increase in rainfall may translate to higher flooding incidences, while the increase in temperature could result in drought.
UPRI also provided the municipality high-resolution, probabilistic baseline and climate change-adjusted hydro-meteorological hazard maps that were produced by running hazard simulations which would be used for the CCVA and DRA. The hazard simulations were done based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), which were downscaled by the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Administrative Services (PAGASA) for years 2020-2049 and 2050-2079 using RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The selected RCPs were based on the country’s capability to sustain climate change adaptation strategies. According to PAGASA, RCP 4.5 (medium-range scenario) and RCP 8.5 (high-range scenario) are the most appropriate scenarios to be used as basis for climate change projections in the case of the Philippines.
Additionally, the rainfall data was also used as the primary input in the simulations of climate change-adjusted hydro-meteorological hazard maps (i.e. floods and rain-induced landslides). Based on the CDRA and ICD, Majayjay together with UP RI, determined the decision areas and drafted risk-sensitive policy interventions that would enable the municipality to adapt to the adverse impacts of the hazards induced by the changing climate, such as drought, floods and landslides. This includes the strengthening of the municipality’s agricultural livelihood through the establishment of a Resilient Water Management System (RWMS) and the Climate Field School (CFS). The CFS will develop climate-smart agricultural techniques, while RWMS addresses the excess or deficiency of water supply.
Majayjay and UPRI drafted a PSF proposal to access the fund that will allow the municipality to attain and sustain risk-sensitive environmental management and climate-smart socio-economic development. The projects in the proposal, RWMS and CFS, seek to enhance Majayjay’s capacity to address and adapt to the effects of climate change, while also boosting the productivity of its agricultural sector through scientific research and through the adoption of reliable and appropriate climate-smart and socially-just agriculture technologies and techniques.
A large part of Majayjay’s economy is dependent on the agricultural sector. As they say, “it is considered to be the driving force of overall economic growth because the increase in agricultural productivity results to an increase in the income of farmers and farm workers, and an enhanced purchasing power among consumers” (CALABARZON Regional Development Plan 2017-2022). The local government of Majayjay will promote agriculture, not only to its constituents but also to the Province of Laguna and to the whole of CALABARZON region. The promotion will start through intensive information, education, and communication (IEC) campaigns which will focus on highlighting the significant role of agriculture in the economic development of the municipality and identifying how to minimize and/or adapt to the impacts of climate change to agriculture through inculcating best practices that will help maximize the returns of agricultural activities among farmers, and other stakeholders.
In order to sustain the gains from the proposed projects, the Municipality of Majayjay will partner with the UPRI, University of the Philippines – Los Baños (UPLB), Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU), and the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) Region IV-A. UP RI, UPLB and LSPU will help in developing the capacity of the relevant stakeholders, provide technical assistance in integrating CCA and DRR in the local development plans, assist in the design of the CFS and its curriculum, and conduct joint research on best agricultural practices and technologies. Additionally, NIA Region IV-A could aid Majayjay in its irrigation expansion.
Municipality of Majayjay. (2018). Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2018-2027. Majayjay: Municipality of Majayjay.
RA 10174. (2012, August 16). An act establishing the People’s Survival Fund to provide long-term finance streams to enable the government to effectively address the problem of climate change, amending for the purpose Republic Act No. 9729, otherwise known as the “Climate Change Act of 2009”, and for other purposes.